Hydronephrosis from the Greek language means "water in the kidneys' hydronephrosis is a common congenital disease or a condition that occurs in about 1 in 500 babies, however, hydronephrosis can also appear later in life for both children and adults hydronephrosis -... Disease in which the flow of urine in the bladder is slower than it should be, and as a result, this leads to the fact that the urine accumulate in the renal pelvis in more than they should and thus disrupts the normal kidney work. hydronephrosis can affect one kidney (unilateral) or both kidneys (bilateral). hydronephrosis antidepressants is "prenatal" or "prenatal", as well as postnatal. The term "prenatal" or "prenatal" means that hydronephrosis was found in a child before birth. postnatal means that hydronephrosis was detected after birth .

Obstruction or blockage is the most common cause of hydronephrosis. This may be due to problems that occur during pregnancy, the fetus (prenatal) or may be a physiological response to pregnancy. Approximately 80% of pregnant women develop hydronephrosis or hydroureter. According to experts, it appears, in particular, because of the effects of progesterone on the ureters, which in turn reduces their tone.

Nowadays hydronephrosis usually initially diagnosed on prenatal ultrasound. Detection of hydronephrosis while the child is in the womb, has become more common due to the high achievements in the field of prenatal ultrasound. Prior to the development of this technology, children born with hydronephrosis, it was impossible to make an accurate diagnosis so long until they began to show symptoms of kidney disease, as well as often hydronephrosis could be never revealed. Many children with the diagnosis of prenatal hydronephrosis, have the capacity to self-recovery at a very early age, without medical intervention.

Hydronephrosis in adults

Diagnosis begins with a conversation about the symptoms that the patient experiences. The doctor will ask guiding questions to determine whether the patient should undergo further tests. Inspection, medical history, and family history of the patient's disease can be useful in the diagnosis of hydronephrosis.

If checked acute onset of symptoms, physical examination may reveal pain in the side or place where the kidneys. increased bladder can be set On examination, the abdomen. As a rule, men performed a rectal examination to assess the size of the prostate. Women may be performed a pelvic examination to assess the state of the uterus and ovaries.

Laboratory tests . Depending on what is considered a potential diagnosis at present, the following laboratory tests can be made:

Analysis of urine . It detects the presence of blood, infection or abnormal cells.This is a very common analysis that can be performed in many health care settings, including doctors' offices, laboratories and hospitals.

Carried out by collecting a urine sample from a patient in a special container. Typically, for analysis may need a small amount (30-60 ml) of urine. The sample was investigated in the medical clinic, and may also be sent in the laboratory. Urine visually evaluated for its appearance (color, turbidity, odor, transparency), and also by means of a macroscopic analysis. It may also be analyzed based on chemical and molecular properties of urine and microscopic evaluation.

Complete blood count is one of the most commonly prescribed blood tests. A complete blood count is the calculation of blood cells. These calculations typically are defined by special machines that analyze various blood components are less than one minute.

The main part of the complete blood count is the measurement of the concentration of white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets in the blood.

How is the CBC? Complete blood analysis is performed by obtaining a few milliliters of the blood sample directly from the patient. This procedure is carried out in many places, including hospitals, laboratories and hospitals. The skin is wiped with an alcohol swab and purified through an area of ​​skin the needle is inserted into the patient's vein. Blood is drawn through a syringe needle to the syringe, or using a special vacuum tubes (which serves as a container for blood) which is attached to the needle. The sample is then sent to a laboratory for analysis.

Blood electrolytes. It may be useful in chronic hydronephrosis as kidneys are responsible for maintaining their balance and blood concentrations.

What is hydronephrosis newborn?

Hydronephrosis or postnatal newborn hydronephrosis is a consequence of antenatal (prenatal) hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis - an extension of renal pelvis and / or an increase in the size of the kidney due to violation of the outflow of urine. In most cases the cause is a blockage of the urinary channel (ureter at the junction with the kidney or bladder, as well as the blockage of the urethra), or in rarer cases, vesicoureteral reflux (a violation of the valve between the ureter and bladder, which prevents the backward flow of urine into the ureter and kidney from the bladder). Usually hydronephrosis detected in the fetus during pregnancy through ultrasound study, and doctors prepared to correct choice of treatment and observation.

After birth, usually on the third day, an ultrasound investigation of the newborn, for determining the condition of internal organs, as well as to determine the presence of hydronephrosis. If hydronephrosis after birth persists, you will need to spend cystourethrogram or renal scan to determine the cause of hydronephrosis. Renal scan is preferable because it provides more accurate results. As already mentioned, the main causes of hydronephrosis - a blockage of the urinary channel or vesicoureteral reflux. In the case of vesicoureteral reflux treatment is limited to antibiotic therapy (to prevent infection of the kidneys by getting urine from the bladder back into the ureters and kidneys) and regular supervision of a physician with periodic ultrasound studies to monitor the status of reflux. In most cases, a child growing up with vesicoureteral reflux goes away on its own. If the blockage often require surgical treatment. In some cases where the occlusion is small, it can be observed for 6 months and then a second study, in the case of beneficial flow is likely to avoid surgical intervention.