Hypothyroidism Synthroid

Hypothyroidism - condition in which the thyroid gland and its hormones insufficiency develop. Manifested slowdown of all processes occurring in the body: the weakness, sleepiness, weight gain, sluggishness of thought and speech, chilliness, hypotension, in women - menstrual irregularities. In severe forms of myxedema develops in adults and cretinism (dementia) in children. Complications of the disease are hypothyroid coma, heart damage and blood vessels: bradycardia, coronary artery atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease. Treatment of patients with hypothyroidism is held artificially synthesized thyroid hormone synthroid alternatives.

Hypothyroidism - the most common form of functional disorders of the thyroid gland, which develops as a result of long-term persistent deficiency of thyroid hormones or reduce their biological actions at the cellular level. Hypothyroidism can not be detected for a long time. This is due to the gradual, insidious onset of the process, a satisfactory state of health of patients in the mild to moderate disease, the symptoms of blurred, regarded as fatigue, depression, pregnancy. The incidence of hypothyroidism is about 1% among women of reproductive age - 2%, increasing to 10% in the elderly.

The lack of thyroid hormones causes systemic changes in the body. Thyroid hormones regulate energy metabolism in the cells, organs, and their deficit is manifested in the reduction of tissue oxygen consumption, decrease energy consumption and recycling of energy substrates. When hypothyroidism is disturbed synthesis of various energy-cellular enzymes necessary for normal cell activity. In the case of running hypothyroidism occurs mucinous (slimy) edema - myxedema, most pronounced in the connective tissue. Myxedema develops due to excess accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in tissues, which, having increased hydrophilicity, retain water.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism

Symptoms of hypothyroidism is generally characterized polysystemic, although each individual patient is dominated by complaints and concerns on the part of some - or a single organ system that often prevents a correct diagnosis. Mild hypothyroidism may show no signs.

When persistent and prolonged hypothyroidism patient observed a distinctive appearance - swollen, puffy face, with a yellowish tinge, edema of the eyelids, limbs, associated with fluid retention in the connective tissue. Concerned about a burning sensation, tingling, muscle pain, stiffness and weakness in the hands. There have dry skin, brittle and dull hair, thinning and increased their loss. Patients with hypothyroidism are in a state of apathy, lethargy. For severe form of the disease is characterized by slowing of speech (like "tongue-tied").

There are changes of voice (to a low, hoarse) and hearing loss due to swelling of the larynx, tongue and middle ear.

Patients has been some increase in weight, hypothermia, constant chilliness, which means reducing the level of metabolic processes. Disorders of the nervous system manifest deterioration of memory and attention, decreased intelligence, cognitive activity, interest in life. There are complaints of weakness, fatigue, sleep disturbance (daytime sleepiness, difficulty falling asleep at night, insomnia). Overall condition is manifested depressed mood, sadness, depression. Neuropsychiatric disorders in children older than 3 years of age and in adults are reversible and fully extend the appointment of replacement therapy. In congenital hypothyroidism, lack of replacement therapy leads to irreversible damage to the nervous system and body as a whole.

There have been changes in the cardiovascular system: bradycardia, diastolic hypertension mild and education pericardial effusion (pericardial effusion). There are frequent, then persistent headache, increased blood cholesterol, anemia.

On the part of the digestive system a decrease in production of enzymes, poor appetite, constipation, nausea, bloating, may develop biliary dyskinesia, hepatomegaly.

The women on the background of hypothyroidism develop disorders of the reproductive system, which is associated with the failure of the menstrual cycle (amenorrhea, dysfunctional uterine bleeding), mastitis development. A pronounced deficiency of thyroid hormones threaten infertility, less overt hypothyroidism in some women does not prevent pregnancy, but it threatens the high risk of miscarriage or birth of a child with neurological disorders. And men and women a decrease in sexual desire.

Clinical manifestations of congenital hypothyroidism are often unable to help in its early diagnosis. Early symptoms include bloating, umbilical hernia, muscle hypotonia, large tongue, posterior fontanelle and increase thyroid, low voice. If timely treatment is not started, then at 3-4 months of age develop difficulty swallowing, loss of appetite, a little weight gain, bloating, constipation, and dry skin pallor, hypothermia, muscle weakness. At the age of 5-6 months delay manifested psychomotor and physical development of the child, there is a disproportion of growth: delayed closure of fontanelles, broad bridge of the nose, increasing the distance between the paired organs - hypertelorism (between the inner edges of the eye sockets, nipples).