What is Amoebiasis

Amebiasis - a disease that is most common in regions with a high level of sanitation, which increases the likelihood of faecal contamination. Countries where the most common disease, are India and Mexico. Also, a high percentage of disease in tropical and subtropical countries (Africa, South Asia). In some areas, these areas the number of infected people ranges from 50 to 80 percent. On the territory of the Commonwealth of Independent States, amebiasis is common in countries such as Georgia, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan. Most often suffer from amebiasis buy doxycycline online males of middle age. Natural susceptibility to infection is high. According to statistics amoebiasis occurs in one person out of ten infected with this parasite. According to the World Health Organization 480 million people are carriers of dysentery amoeba. Annually intestinal amebiasis and its other forms occur in 50 million people. It ends with a fatal outcome 2 percent of cases.

Interesting Facts

The first person to mention amoebiasis in his writings, Hippocrates was. Scientists describe the infection as a long and painful disease with severe diarrhea, in which the intestine is covered with sores. Hippocrates also noted that in this disease may develop purulent processes in the liver. In the Middle Ages the study of amebiasis continued his Persian physician Avicenna, which provides in-depth characterization of the disease, in his book "The Canon of Medicine".

The group of biologists from the university cities such as San Francisco, Arizona and New Mexico, conducted a study in which it was studied the influence of intestinal microflora in the human. The results of the biologists who have been published in the journal BioEssays say that microorganisms can control appetite man for himself optimal habitat. Member of the group, Dr. Carlo Mali, states that the intestinal microbiota bacteria have the ability to manipulate man. The assumption of scientists based on the fact that living organisms that inhabit the intestine, have different requirements. Some bacteria are necessary for normal functioning of the fats, other micro-organisms need the sugar. Therefore, probably, the representatives of the microflora stimulates the appetite, causing a desire in man to use a particular product.At the moment, there is no proven method by which microorganisms can manipulate the gastronomic tastes of people. The theoretical justification is based on the established connection between the condition of the intestinal microflora and the nervous system. Scientists believe that bacteria are sending different signals to the nerve that connects a large number of cells of the digestive tract to the brain that affects a person's desire to use a particular product.

Another interesting fact microflora opportunities, which came by Japanese scientists in 2004, was proof that the intestinal bacteria influence the ability to adapt to environmental conditions. The researchers removed the experimental mice of the gastro-intestinal bacteria and determined that test subjects became worse to respond to difficult situations. Also in these mice it was observed a strong increase of the level of stress hormones as compared with those animals in which the microflora was intact.The relationship of the microflora and the cognitive functions of the body confirmed the study led by John Cryan of the Irish University. The experiment was to study the behavior of animals, which was given the form of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Some time later, in mice a marked improvement in learning ability, increased concentration. Now the scientists plan to repeat the experiment on humans.

Intestinal bacteria protect against autism - this fact was confirmed by scientists from the University of California. Watching the autistic (children with autism), many doctors noticed that mental disorders are often associated with disorders of the digestive system. In 2012, large-scale study was conducted, which was proved by the fact that patients with autism often suffer from a variety of intestinal pathologies. It remained to determine the nature of the relationship between the microflora and autism. To this end, the University of California employees have to experience the mice that showed animal model of autism (not performed ultrasound songs and showed compulsive behavior, characteristic of the disease). After reaching 3-week-old doctors examined the intestines of mice and found in it a variety of inflammatory processes. The next stage of the experiment, mice were feeding food with additives of bacteria Bacteroides fragilis, which help fight with intestinal inflammation. Three weeks later, after the bowel has bounced back, the mice began to disappear signs of autism.

Pathogenesis and Pathologic picture

Most infested cysts and luminal amoebae forms can survive for long in the intestine without causing disease. Under unfavorable conditions (decreased body resistance, dietary protein deficiency, goiter, etc.). Amoeba embedded in the gut wall, where the breed. In the pathogenesis of amebiasis is very important degree of virulence of the pathogen strains. The strains with higher virulence often distinguished from patients with intestinal amebiasis than from asymptomatic tsistovydeliteley. Essential also belongs to the microbial landscape of the intestine. Some species of bacteria contribute to the implementation of amoebae in tissue, their presence in the colon is a factor contributing to the emergence of the disease. Penetration into the gut wall is provided by its own enzymes amoebas having proteolytic activity.

In the gut epithelium occur cytolysis and necrosis of tissue with the formation of ulcers.

Pathological process in intestinal amebiasis mainly localized in the cecum and ascending colon. Sometimes the rectum is affected, even rarer - other sections of the intestine.

In typical cases, the early stage of intestinal amebiasis manifested hyperemia and edema of the mucosa, the occurrence of her small erosions and towering nodules with a yellow dot on the top. The nodules are filled with detritus and contain vegetative forms of dysentery amoeba. Destruction due to necrosis of nodules leads to the formation of ulcers. The size of ulcers ranges from a few millimeters up to 2-2.5 cm in diameter. Ulcers, having a form of flasks differ podrytymi swollen edges, they are surrounded by hyperemia area and separated portions of healthy tissue. Deep bottom ulcers reaching the submucosa, covered with pus. The thicker the fabric and the bottom of ulcers detected amoeba with phagocytized erythrocytes.

In severe intestinal amebiasis, accompanied the disintegration of tissues under the mucous membrane occur sinuses, which combine to form extensive ulcers with irregularly shaped edges. Deepening ulcers to muscular and serous membranes can cause perforation of the intestinal wall and develop peritonitis - encysted or more often diffuse. The healing of deep ulceration and scarring lead to stenosis of the colon and the development of partial even complete obstruction. Deep ulceration of the gut wall cause intestinal bleeding.

Hematogenous dissemination amoeba causes the development of extra-intestinal amebiasis with the formation of abscesses in the liver, lungs, brain and other organs. Long, flowing chronic intestinal amebiasis can cause the formation of cysts, polyps and amoebas. Amoeboma represent tumor formation in the bowel wall composed of granulation tissue fibroblasts and eosinophils.